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顾家家居将就专利侵权提起上诉 沙发大战再起硝烟

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 十一黄金周家居市场小爆发 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

房企寻觅新融资模式 信托公司谋转型

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

营造80年代的感觉
毕业于该项目的学员获得的金钱回报遥遥领先,毕业3年后的平均年薪为46.9万美元。
DNA from the bones matched that of descendants of the king's sister, while the skeleton had the twisted spine and battle injuries consistent with contemporary accounts, said researchers from the University of Leicester.
当小李子上台领取奖杯时,制片人哈维·韦恩斯坦兴奋地拍拍他的背,全场观众起立为他喝彩。
朱克斯提醒,我们目前正处于第四次超级大泡沫之中,它是美联储在保守经济学兴起以来的30年时间里吹起来的。他将这个泡沫称为“暂时没有名字的泡沫”(Bubble With No Name Yet)。好,大家来给这个新泡沫命名吧。但不管你叫它什么,都要快点起名,因为它马上就要爆了,就像过去30年相继破灭的亚洲泡沫、互联网泡沫和信贷泡沫一样。
Best chances: It's always hard to bet against Streep getting a best actress nomination, and Hanks is overdue for an acting nomination after missing out in recent years.
2. Worldwide Murders

D'Aloisio himself strives to maintain a bubble of normalcy. He dates the same girl he did before the whirlwind hit. And though he's stopped attending school-he's too busy to sit in class while overseeing Summly's development-he still gets his work from his teachers and meets with them regularly. He cherishes the fact that his circle of friends knows little of his life as a budding industrialist. When I met him, he was about to head to Greece for a weeklong vacation with a pack of high school pals.
It is the continual shrinkage of components that have unleashed the explosion of computing power and enabled these gadgets to be accessible to people across the world.
判断权在你手里。
单词prime 联想记忆:
6. You don’t just pass in front of the TV if i’m watching football, you better crawl on the floor.

Footnotes

  • 环境形势严峻 门窗企业绿色生产刻不容缓
  • accurate

Maybe 'Melo's mini-fro is the missing key to an NBA Championship for the New York Knicks. Oh no, wait, the missing link is Jeremy Lin—but still, 'Melo's mini-fro wouldn't hurt the Knicks' title hopes.
此时可能会有旅客好奇,是否会有一座机场超过备受称赞的樟宜机场呢?
Good Time
The incomes of graduates from universities listed in China's 211, or 985 key university national projects are far ahead of those from ordinary universities, the survey found.
统计显示,截至2015年底,西藏约有59万农村贫困人口。
Google's top 10 searches for 2017–Global

中央经济工作会议:就业要解决好性别歧视、身份歧视问题

References

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