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房价高企因为资产荒?房子真实属性将渐回归

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 2015年快捷酒店家具产业产值将超汽车业 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

地方宅地供应异常地块要及时说明原因

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

2. 邻客音(LinkedIn)。品牌喜爱度:47%/排名:309
Companies that cut support roles during the downturn, the report notes, will be "adding staff to help make departments more productive and efficient." That trend may herald a happy new year for job hunters.
据该报告显示,苹果的品牌价值同比去年增长了5%,至1780亿美元,而谷歌的品牌价值同比增长了11%,至1330亿美元。
对于很多西方白人来说,取得“获得性身份认同”(登上山巅)的机会似乎已经变得遥不可及。所以“先赋性身份认同”——也就是他们的“白”——变得比以往更加重要起来。
The husband-and-wife team behind Little Miss Sunshine tackle the 1977 gender war between Bobby Riggs, washed-up 55-year-old tennis pro, and Billie Jean King, the young ace (then No 2 in the world) he challenged to a match.
对于美联储(Federal Reserve)预计本周宣布的加息已经产生了效应,还是会进一步加大负债企业和经济体所受的压力,投资者意见分歧。
2016年肯达尔的总收入为1000万美元,而她在过去12个月里的总收入超过了她在2016年的全部收入的两倍,这也使她成为榜单上收入最高的模特。

Chinese telecommunications giant Huawei filed a notable 2,390 patents, which was the second-largest filing by a company globally, after Philips with 2,568 patents.
无论黑莓和三星联姻这种事是否发生,时代的发展已经凸显了移动技术下一波创新(和诉讼)浪潮的所在:在日益移动化的世界中掌握权限控制方法,阻止企业遭到黑客袭击。(财富中文网)
《银河护卫队》之所以能成为一部大获成功的超级英雄系列电影,原因之一就是它的幽默感。这部影片充满了自嘲和讽刺。观看这部影片的时候,你不会一直笑个不停,但至少会有一些瞬间让你哈哈大笑,比如树人和克里斯?帕特出场的时候。
?Bond has been attacked in innumerable ways and survived everything. Of course, this is because he's fictional. It is interesting to note that research shows masculine men are hardier. In fact, being un-masculine can be lethal for males. (Maybe it's all those orgasms keeping him alive. I doubt he'll die of a heart attack or prostate cancer.)
你经常烦躁吗?

Footnotes

  • 北京东西城“城市管理委员会”同日挂牌
  • Federal, state and local government job cutbacks are slowing. More than 250,000 workers at all levels of government lost jobs last year. This year, so far, about 20,000 have gained jobs. Worries about the nation's debt and deficits likely will keep a lid on government spending and investments, economists say, but any jumps in, say, infrastructure spending would create jobs. At the least, government will be less of a drag.[qh]

THE BRIDGE (Hulu, Friday) The second season of this Danish-Swedish crime drama (the source for FX’s recently canceled series of the same name) once again involves the Oresund Bridge connecting the two countries.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico (AP) — Puerto Rico’s new governor was sworn in Monday as the U.S. territory prepares for what many believe will be new austerity measures and a renewed push for statehood to haul the island out of a deep economic crisis.
Opening up
Housing started last year on a high note. It ended the year facing mounting worries about higher interest rates, supply constraints, tight credit and a host of other problems.
10. You've just been acting weird, OK?
The Raptors entered February as the team that most needed to make a move: their hot start was fading, their defense wasn't up to snuff for a contender, they had a massive hole at the four, and they felt added urgency to make the most of Kyle Lowry's prime in advance of his upcoming free agency.

链家联通新房二手房 全方位打造O2O“住”平台

References

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